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Polioviruses constitute three closely related serotypes (types 1, 2, and 3) within a large group of enteroviruses C, each of which can cause poliomyelitis. Poliomyelitis is highly contagious and spreads by the fecal-oral and oral-oral routes. Humans are the only natural hosts of poliovirus.
Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is one of the most actively investigated gene therapy vehicles. It was initially discovered as a contaminant of adenovirus preparations, hence the name. Briefly, AAV is a protein shell surrounding and protecting a small, single-stranded DNA genome of approximately 4.8 kilobases (kb).